61 Rahasia Untuk Menjadi KAYA dan Membuat Passive Income

61 Rahasia Untuk Menjadi Kaya

June 01, 2012

Vacancy Marine Surveyor (Claim Administrator)

PRIMA ADJUSTERS who is an Indonesia’s Representative of vrs universe is actually looking for young professionals to be positioned as

Marine Surveyor (Claim Administrator) Jakarta Raya


  • Claim survey for marine cargo and hull as well as inland transit
  • Loading / discharge survey
  • Report writing
  • Risk assessment
  • Male
  • Naval Architect or graduated from Maritime Institute or STIP with minimum degree DIII, experienced is preferable.
  • Should possess  knowledge in marine cargo, stevedoring, forwarding and warehousing
  • Written and spoken English
  • Computer literate with strong knowledge of MS Office
  • Good interpersonal skill
  • Have knowledge in marine insurance will be an advantage
  • Have experience in marine / cargo transportation services are preferable
  • Willing to travel all over Indonesia
  • Based  in Jakarta

Please send your CV and photograph not later than 2 weeks after this advertisement to :

March 29, 2012

18 Websites to Find Maritime Jobs Online

Check out our top 18 maritime jobs websites, which might help you to scale new heights in your career.

1)   Job 2 Sea
2)   Maritime Connector
3)   G Captain Jobboard
4)   Find a mariner
5)   Vacanseas
6)   Job Ships 
7)   Maritime Jobs 4 You 
8)    Vcrew 
9)    Seafarer Jobs
10) Sea job 

11)  marine-jobs
12)  Jobs at Sea 
13)  Job on Yachts 
14)  Offshore Jobs Online
15)  Water Crew 
16)  Cruise Careers
17)  Seaman Website .
18)  Maritime Career 

If you know any other active maritime portal, do let us know and we will get it listed here.

February 06, 2012

Protection and Indemnity Insurance

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Protection and indemnity insurance, commonly known as P&I, is a form of marine insurance provided by a P&I Club. A P&I Club is a mutual (i.e. co-operative) insurance association that provides cover for its members, who will typically be ship-owners, ship-operators or demise chatterers. Unlike a marine insurance company, which is answerable to its shareholders, a P&I Club is the servant only of its members.
Both P&I Clubs and conventional marine insurers are governed by the provisions of the Marine Insurance Act 1906. Marine insurers provide cover for known quantifiable risks, mainly Hull & Machinery insurance for ship-owners, and Cargo Insurance for cargo owners. By contrast, P&I Clubs provide insurance cover for broader indeterminate risks, such as third party liabilities that marine insurers are loath to cover. Third party risks include a carrier’s liability to a cargo-owner for damage to cargo, a ship’s liability after a collision, environmental pollution and war risk insurance; (although some marine insurers are also prepared to cover war risks).
It follows that any given cargo may be insured twice: the shipper/cargo-owner will take out conventional cover, and the carrier will have P&I cover. If the cargo is lost or damaged, the cargo-owner should first make a cargo claim against the carrier; but the latter may avoid liability because either (i) he did not cause the loss, or (ii) the Hague-Visby Rules grant exemption from liability. In such a case, the cargo owner will claim against his own insurer. If the cargo-owner fails to claim first against the carrier, but claims against his own insurer, the latter (having reimbursed their client) will, through subrogation, be able to pursue the claim in their own right against the carrier.
Marine insurers charge a premium, which guarantees to the assured full cover during the validity of the policy; but P&I insurance is financed not by premiums but by “calls”. Club members contribute to the club’s common pool, out of which claims are paid. If the pool is insufficient, the club members will be asked to pay a further call; but if the pool is in surplus, the Club will ask for a reduced call the following year, or may even make a refund to members. (Only ship operators with a sound reputation will be allowed to join a P&I club; and any P&I cub member who incurs reckless or avoidable losses to the club may be asked to leave)
Whereas a marine insurer will, on average, pay out £70 for every £100 received in premiums, a P&I Club seeks to run as a non-profit-making business. Curiously, the largest P&I Club, Norway’s Gard, manages to combine mutual P&I business with conventional marine insurance. Should the Rotterdam Rules come into force, third-party liabilities will increase; and this may result in conventional insurers losing more and more business to P&I Clubs.

Growth of third party liabilities

Although marine insurance dates from the Middle Ages, British ship-owners did not feel the need to purchase liability insurance until the 19th century when injured crew members began to seek compensation from their employers, and the Fatal Accidents Act 1846 facilitated claims by passengers or their survivors. The likelihood of claims was greatly increased by the vast numbers of passengers who constituted the flood of emigrants to North America and Australia in the second half of the century. Ship-owners were also becoming increasingly aware of the inadequacy of the available insurance cover in respect of damage caused by their ships in collisions with other ships. The usual cover for claims by other ships and their cargo for collision damage excluded altogether one fourth of such damage and, more seriously, was limited in amount. (The maximum recovery under hull policies, including both damage to the insured ship and liability for the damage it had caused, was the insured value of the ship).
The first protection association, the Ship owners’ Mutual Protection Society, was formed in 1855. It was intended to cover liabilities for loss of life and personal injury and also the collision risks excluded from the current marine policies, particularly the excess above the limits in those policies. Similar associations were subsequently formed in various cities and towns within the United Kingdom, and later in Scandinavia, Japan, and the United States.
In 1874, the risk of liability for loss of or damage to cargo carried on board the insured ship was first added to the cover provided by a protection Club. The values of cargoes had risen and cargo underwriters, encouraged by the courts, had become keener on recovering their losses from ship-owners. After 1874 many Clubs added an indemnity class to provide the necessary cover. Subsequently, most of these separate classes were amalgamated with the class reserved for the original protection risks, and the distinction between the two classes virtually disappeared.
Following the grounding of the Torrey Canyon in 1967, coverage for the liabilities, costs and expenses arising from oil spills became an increasingly important aspect of P&I insurance.

Coverage today

More than 90% of the World's oceangoing tonnage is insured by the mutual P&I Clubs that are members of the International Group of P&I Clubs. These organizations are the successors of the associations founded in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The 13 P&I clubs are mainly situated in the U.K. but also in USA, Japan, Sweden, Norway and the Netherlands. The Clubs vary considerably in size and currently the largest club is the Norwegian based Gard. P&I Club coverage is generally as broad as the liabilities faced by a ship-owner qua ship-owner. The following are the major exceptions to this rule.

Other insurance

Traditionally, one of the main reasons a claim was not covered by P&I insurance was that the managers of the Club thought it should be covered by other insurance that the ship-owner should have taken out. That usually meant hull insurance, which paid collision liabilities and, in some cases, liabilities for damage to fixed and floating objects ("FFO"), or war risks insurance.


Another reason a claim might not be covered, or at least not covered in full, is that the ship-owner had not taken certain steps to have limited his liability in order to protect the Club. The principal steps expected of ship-owners were making sure that the appropriate exculpatory language was inserted in bills of lading and passenger tickets. Today the legal requirements with which ship-owners are expected to comply include all the requirements of the flag state concerning marine safety and environmental protection. Another illustration of this principle is the rule that contractual liabilities (those assumed by the ship-owner as a matter of contract) are not generally covered.

Moral hazard

P&I Clubs have always taken pains to point out to members that liabilities arising out of the fraudulent misdelivery of cargo, especially delivery of cargo without demanding the production of an original bill of lading, were not covered by P&I insurance. Club managers evidently thought that commerce would grind to a halt if there was a risk that ship-owners would conspire with shippers to defraud receivers and their banks, so they refused to indemnify ship-owners under these circumstances. This view was shared by the English courts. Sze Hai Tong Bank v. Rambler Cycle Co. [1959] A.C. 576; [1959] 2 Lloyd's Rep. 114 (P.C.)

Willful misconduct

Losses intended by the insured, or to which it "turned a blind eye" knowing they were likely to happen.

Public policy

There was a time when criminal liabilities were not covered as a matter of course. To say otherwise might even make the underwriter liable for facilitating the crime. It was understood that criminal liability was imposed only for intentional misconduct, and the requirement of fortuity generally foreclosed any question of coverage for criminal liabilities. Today, the situation is vastly more difficult. Statutes in many countries impose "criminal" liability for negligent conduct that damages the environment, under circumstances which do not even rise to the level of "willful misconduct" under the law of marine insurance. Ship-owners justifiably expect their Clubs to pay the fines and penalties thus incurred.

Clubs work on the basis of agreeing to accept a ship-owner as a member and levying an initial 'call' (premium). With the fund accumulated, reinsurance will be purchased; however, if the loss experience is unfavorable one or more 'supplementary calls' may be made. Clubs also typically try to build up reserves, but this puts them at odds with their mutual status.
Because liability regimes vary throughout the world, insurers are usually careful to limit or exclude American Jones Act liability.

Actual total loss and constructive total loss

Fire aboard MV Hyundai Fortune resulting in a constructive total loss
These two terms are used to differentiate the degree of proof where a vessel or cargo has been lost. An actual total loss refers to the situation where the position is clear and a constructive total loss refers to the situation where a loss is inferred. In practice, a constructive total loss might also be used to describe a loss where the cost of repair is not economic; i.e. a 'write-off'.
The different terms refer to the difficulties of proving a loss where there might be no evidence of such a loss. In this respect, marine insurance differs from non-marine insurance, where the insured is required to prove his loss. Traditionally, in law, marine insurance was seen as an insurance of 'the adventure', with insurers having a stake and an interest in the vessel and/ or the cargo rather than, simply, an interest in the financial consequences of the subject-matter's survival.


The term 'Average' has two meanings:
(1) In marine insurance, in the case of a partial loss, or emergency repairs to the vessel, average may be declared. This covers situations, where, for example, a ship in a storm might have to jettison certain cargo to protect the ship and the remaining cargo. 'General Average' requires all parties concerned in the venture (Hull/Cargo/Freight/Bunkers) to contribute to compensate the losses caused to those whose cargo has been lost or damaged. 'Particular Average' is levied on a group of cargo owners and not all of the cargo owners.
(2) In the situation where an insured has under-insured, i.e. insured an item for less than it is worth, average will apply to reduce the amount payable. There are different ways of calculating average, but generally the same proportion of under-insurance will be applied to any payout due.
An average adjuster is a marine claims specialist responsible for adjusting and providing the general average statement. He is usually appointed by the ship-owner or insurer.

Excess, deductible, retention, co-insurance, and franchise

An excess is the amount payable by the insured and is usually expressed as the first amount falling due, up to a ceiling, in the event of a loss. An excess may or may not be applied. It may be expressed in either monetary or percentage terms. An excess is typically used to discourage moral hazard and to remove small claims, which are disproportionately expensive to handle. The equivalent term to 'excess' in marine insurance is 'deductible' or 'retention'.
A co-insurance, which is typically applied in non-proportional treaty reinsurance, is an excess expressed as a proportion of a claim, e.g. 5%, and applied to the entirety of a claim.
A franchise is a deductible below which nothing is payable and beyond which the entire amount of the sum insured is payable. It is typically used in reinsurance arbitrage arrangements.

Tonners and chinamen

These are both obsolete forms of early reinsurance. Both are technically unlawful, as not having insurable interest, and so were unenforceable in law. Policies were typically marked P.P.I. (Policy is Proof of Interest). Their use continued into the 1970s before they were banned by Lloyd's, the main market, by which time, they had become nothing more than crude bets.
A 'tonner' was simply a 'policy' setting out the global gross tonnage loss for a year. If that loss was reached or exceeded, the policy paid out. A 'chinaman' applied the same principle but in reverse: thus, if the limit was not reached, the policy paid out.

Specialist policies

Various types of specialist policy exist, including:
New building risks: This covers the risk of damage to the hull whilst it is under construction.
Yacht Insurance: Insurance of pleasure craft is generally known as 'yacht insurance' and includes liability coverage. Smaller vessels, such as yachts and fishing vessels, are typically underwritten on a 'binding authority' or 'line slip' basis.
War risks: Usual Hull insurance does not cover the risks of a vessel sailing into a war zone. A typical example is the risk to a tanker sailing in the Persian Gulf during the Gulf War. War risks cover protects, at an additional premium, against the danger of loss in a war zone. The war risks areas are established by the London-based Joint War Committee, which has recently moved to include the Malacca Straits as a war risks area due to piracy [1]. If an attack is classified as a "riot" then it would be covered by war risk insurers.[2]
Increased Value (IV): Increased Value cover protects the ship-owner against any difference between the insured value of the vessel and the market value of the vessel.
Overdue insurance: This is a form of insurance now largely obsolete due to advances in communications. It was an early form of reinsurance and was bought by an insurer when a ship was late at arriving at her destination port and there was a risk that she might have been lost (but, equally, might simply have been delayed). The overdue insurance of the Titanic was famously underwritten on the doorstep of Lloyd's.
Cargo insurance: Cargo insurance is underwritten on the Institute Cargo Clauses, with coverage on an A, B, or C basis, A having the widest cover and C the most restricted. Valuable cargo is known as specie.

Warranties and conditions

A peculiarity of marine insurance, and insurance law generally, is the use of the terms condition and warranty. In English law, a condition typically describes a part of the contract that is fundamental to the performance of that contract, and, if breached, the non-breaching party is entitled not only to claim damages but to terminate the contract on the basis that it has been repudiated by the party in breach. By contrast, a warranty is not fundamental to the performance of the contract and breach of a warranty, whilst giving rise to a claim for damages, does not entitle the non-breaching party to terminate the contract. The meaning of these terms is reversed in insurance law. Indeed, a warranty if not strictly complied with will automatically discharge the insurer from further liability under the contract of insurance. The assured has no defense to his breach, unless he can prove that the insurer, by his conduct has waived his right to invoke the breach, possibility provided in section 34(3) of the Marine Insurance Act 1906 (MIA). Furthermore in the absence of express warranties the MIA will imply them, notably a warranty to provide a seaworthy vessel at the commencement of the voyage in a voyage policy (section 39(1)) and a warranty of legality of the insured voyage (section 41). .[3]

Salvage and prizes

The term 'salvage' refers to the practice of rendering aid to a vessel in distress. Apart from the consideration that the sea is traditionally 'a place of safety', with sailors honour-bound to render assistance as required, it is obviously in underwriters' interests to encourage assistance to vessels in danger of being wrecked. A policy will usually include a 'sue and labour' clause which will cover the reasonable costs incurred by a ship-owner in his avoiding a greater loss.
At sea, a ship in distress will typically agree to 'Lloyd's Open Form' with any potential salvor. The Lloyd's Open Form is the standard contract, although other forms exist. The Lloyd's Open Form is headed 'No cure - no pay'; the intention being that if the attempted salvage is unsuccessful, no award will be made. However, this principle has been weakened in recent years, and awards are now permitted in cases where, although the ship might have sunk, pollution has been avoided or mitigated. In other circumstances the "salvor" may invoke the SCOPIC terms (most recent and commonly used rendition is SCOPIC 2000) in contrast to the LOF (Lloyd's Open Form) these terms mean that the salvor will be paid even if the salvage attempt is unsuccessful. The amount the salvor receives is limited to cover the costs of the salvage attempt and 15% above it. One of the main negative factors in invoking SCOPIC (on the salvors behalf) is if the salvage attempt is successful the amount at which the salvor can claim under article 13 of LOF is discounted.
The Lloyd's Open Form, once agreed, allows salvage attempts to begin immediately. The extent of any award is determined later; although the standard wording refers to the Chairman of Lloyd's arbitrating any award, in practice the role of arbitrator is passed to specialist admiralty QCs.
A ship captured in war is referred to as a prize, and the captors entitled to prize money. Again this risk is covered by standard policies.

Marine Insurance

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Marine insurance covers the loss or damage of ships, cargo, terminals, and any transport or cargo by which property is transferred, acquired, or held between the points of origin and final destination.
Cargo insurance—discussed here—is a sub-branch of marine insurance, though Marine also includes Onshore and Offshore exposed property (container terminals, ports, oil platforms, pipelines); Hull; Marine Casualty; and Marine Liability.

Origins of formal marine insurance

Maritime insurance was the earliest well-developed kind of insurance, with origins in the Greek and Roman maritime loan. Separate marine insurance contracts were developed in Genoa and other Italian cities in the fourteenth century and spread to northern Europe. Premiums varied with intuitive estimates of the variable risk from seasons and pirates.[1]
The modern origins of marine insurance law in English law were in the law merchant, with the establishment in England in 1601 of a specialized chamber of assurance separate from the other Courts. Lord Mansfield, Lord Chief Justice in the mid-eighteenth century, began the merging of law merchant and common law principles. The establishment of Lloyd's of London, competitor insurance companies, a developing infrastructure of specialists (such as shipbrokers, admiralty lawyers, and bankers), and the growth of the British Empire gave English law a prominence in this area which it largely maintains and forms the basis of almost all modern practice. The growth of the London insurance market led to the standardization of policies and judicial precedent further developed marine insurance law. In 1906 the Marine Insurance Act was passed which codified the previous common law; it is both an extremely thorough and concise piece of work. Although the title of the Act refers to marine insurance, the general principles have been applied to all non-life insurance.
In the 19th century, Lloyd's and the Institute of London Underwriters (a grouping of London company insurers) developed between them standardized clauses for the use of marine insurance, and these have been maintained since. These are known as the Institute Clauses because the Institute covered the cost of their publication.
Within the overall guidance of the Marine Insurance Act and the Institute Clauses parties retain a considerable freedom to contract between themselves.
Marine insurance is the oldest type of insurance. Out of it grew non-marine insurance and reinsurance. It traditionally formed the majority of business underwritten at Lloyd's. Nowadays, Marine insurance is often grouped with Aviation and Transit (i.e. cargo) risks, and in this form is known by the acronym 'MAT'.


The Marine Insurance Act includes, as a schedule, a standard policy (known as the 'SG form'), which parties were at liberty to use if they wished. Because each term in the policy had been tested through at least two centuries of judicial precedent, the policy was extremely thorough. However, it was also expressed in rather archaic terms. In 1991, the London market produced a new standard policy wording known as the MAR 91 form and using the Institute Clauses. The MAR form is simply a general statement of insurance; the Institute Clauses are used to set out the detail of the insurance cover. In practice, the policy document usually consists of the MAR form used as a cover, with the Clauses stapled to the inside. Typically each clause will be stamped, with the stamp overlapping both onto the inside cover and to other clauses; this practice is used to avoid the substitution or removal of clauses.
Because marine insurance is typically underwritten on a subscription basis, the MAR form begins: We, the Underwriters, agree to bind ourselves each for his own part and not one for another [...]. In legal terms, liability under the policy is several and not joint; i.e. the underwriters are all liable together, but only for their share or proportion of the risk. If one underwriter should default, the remainders are not liable to pick his share of the claim.
Typically, marine insurance is split between the vessels and the cargo. Insurance of the vessels is generally known as 'Hull and Machinery' (H&M). A more restricted form of cover is 'Total Loss Only' (TLO), generally used as a reinsurance, which only covers the total loss of the vessel and not any partial loss.
Cover may be on either a 'voyage' or 'time' basis. The 'voyage' basis covers transit between the ports set out in the policy; the 'time' basis covers a period of time, typically one year, and is more common.

Protection and indemnity

A marine policy typically covered only three-quarter of the insured's liabilities towards third parties. The typical liabilities arise in respect of collision with another ship, known as 'running down' (collision with a fixed object is an 'harbor'), and wreck removal (a wreck may serve to block a harbor, for example).
In the 19th century, ship-owners banded together in mutual underwriting clubs known as Protection and Indemnity Clubs (P&I), to insure the remaining one-quarter liability amongst themselves. These Clubs are still in existence today and have become the model for other specialized and noncommercial marine and non-marine mutual’s, for example in relation to oil pollution and nuclear risks.

Containers Shipping

ISO Codes
The International Standards Organization (ISO) has recommended a series of internal and external dimensions for containers together with gross maximum weights which the container may carry.
Not all containers which are used by transport companies are ISO containers and under no circumstances should they be accepted unless with special agreement.
Container Parts
The main components of a container are described below with accompanying diagram.


  • Corner Post: Vertical frame components located at the corners of freight containers and integral with the corner castings and floor structures.
  • Corner Castings: Fittings located at the corner of the freight container which provides means for lifting, handling, stacking and securing the container.
  • Header and Sill: In way of door entrance with overhead horizontal header frame and similar floor level threshold sill.
  • Front-End Frame: The structure at the front end of the container (opposite the door end) consisting of top and bottom rails attached to the front corner posts and the corner castings.
  • Top Rail: Longitudinal structural members located at the top edge on either side of the freight container.
  • Bottom Rail: Longitudinal structural members located at the bottom edge on either side of the freight container.
  • Cross-members: A series of transverse beams at approximately 12 inch centres attached to the bottom side rail and an integral part of the floor frame support.
  • Floor: The floor may be hard or soft laminated wood, planks or plywood.
  • Roof: Roof bows are the undermost structure of the roof and are usually placed at 18 or 24 inch centre’s. Modern steel GP containers (except open top containers) are not fitted with roof bows but will have corrugated or flat steel sheet roofs welded to the frame members.
    Aluminum containers have aluminum sheathing, bonded with adhesive to the roof bows and riveted to the top rails and headers. GRP containers have fiberglass reinforced plywood panels fastened to the rail and headers. The roof is the part of the container most vulnerable to damage.
  • Sides & Front: Modern steel GP containers will have corrugated steel panels. Aluminum containers have aluminum sheathing on the sides and front of the container which are affixed to aluminum stringers which are in turn bolted to the top and bottom rails and also to the front end frame. The stringers may be on the outside or inside of the sheathing. GRP containers do not use stringers for supporting the fiberglass reinforced plywood panels. The side and the front of steel containers are made of corrugated steel sheets eliminating stringers.
  • Doors: Doors may be ply-metal (plywood core with steel or aluminum facings), corrugated, or combinations with fiberglass. The hinged doors have plastic or rubber lined door gaskets as seals against water ingress. 
  • Security seal: Used in conjunction with locking mechanism in order to seal the containers for security purposes. These seals are numbered and often colour coded.

Container Types

The container fleet can be loosely described in terms of General Purpose (GP) containers or specials.
The GP or general purpose container accounts for the large majority of the fleet and is used for most general cargo commodities. The containers are 20 ft or 40 ft in length with a limited stock of 45 ft.
The standard external height of GP containers is 8 ft 6 inches although high cube containers at 9 ft 6 inches in height are becoming common.
Special containers are provided for specific carriage requirements and examples are listed below.

Type; Sizes (In feet); Characteristics; Typical uses
Open Tops; 20/40; Soft detachable roof tarpaulin or tilt; Machinery requiring top loading and over height cargo.
Half Heights; 20/40; Soft detachable roof tarpaulin or tilt, half height; High density cargoes such as ingots, heavy steelwork, drums.
Flat racks; 20/ 40; No sidewalls or roof (and ends may be collapsible); For out of gauge cargoes and restricted loading situations.
Platforms; 20/40; Flatbed with corner castings. Limited numbers of high rated equipment; Over-length cargoes and special projects.
Refrigerated; 20/40; 8'6" and 9'6"; Electrically powered self contained refrigeration unit; Refrigerated cargoes throughout the World with connection to terminals and ships electrical power sockets.